Tuesday, May 24, 2005

bismillah, walhamdulillah, wassolatu wassalamu 'ala rasulillah, wa'ala aalihi wasahbihi ajma'een

hadith #4: NOSE & WUDHU'
on the authority of Abu Hurairah (RA), Rasulullah (SAW) said:
if anyone of you performs wudhu', so let him put in his nose some water, and thereafter, let him blow it off. and whomever seeks stones to clean himself, it should be done in the number that is odd. and when one of you awakes from his/her sleep, let him wash his/her hands three times before introducing them to a water container. because verily, one is not aware of where the hands were at night.

1) one who performs wudhu' is required by shar'ie to put some water into his/her nose & exhale it out because the nose is part of the face. there are other authentic texts that indicate the legality of cleaning the nose. >>> wash the nose when performing wudhu'

2) one who performs istijmar (cleaning najs from the 2 channels using stones) should make the number of stones more than 3 and concludes with an odd number. >>> witr is sunnah =)

3) one who wakes up from the night sleep should wash his/her hands 3 times before putting them in a water container, or shouldn't touch anything moist until he/she washes the hands. it may be that during the sleep, the hand touches something that is not clean. >>> wash the hands everytime we wake up from sleep

indeed, cleanliness is part of this deen, that's why it is a way of life instead of merely a religion. islam is our way of life, so let's practise it =D

wAllahu'alam.

Sunday, May 15, 2005

private and public libraries (continued)

It would be appropriate to mention here some of the public and private libraries that have been mentioned in history:

1. Maktabat al Khulafa’ al-Fatimiyyah, Cairo

This library of the Fatimid Caliphs of Cairo was one of the most famous one of that time. This was a wonderful library containing the finest copies of the Quran and other books, of which there were 2 million in number, although Maqrizi is of the opinion that it comprised 1.6 million books.

2. Dar al-Hikma, Cairo

Instituted by Hakim ibn Amrullah, this library was inaugurated on 10th Jumada of 365 AH, when its building was decorated and the floor draped with the best carpets, and the supervisory and managerial staff assigned. It was a magnificent collection of books, quite unlike any that a monarch had made before. It had forty sections, each comprising eighteen thousand books, including all kinds on ancient sciences and arts. It was open to everyone. Some people would go there for study, others to copy books and yet others only to acquire knowledge. Stationery of every description was supplied to the visitors of this library free of charge.

3. Bayt al Hikma, Baghdad

Another such library was Bayt al Hikma of Baghdad, founded by Harun al-Rashid which reached its peak during the rule of Ma’mun al-Rashid. It was similar to a university where people would discuss, read and write together. It used to have scribes and translators who would translate books acquired by Harun al-Rashid and Ma’mun al-Rashid after the Conquests of Ankara, Amuriyyah and Cyprus. Ibn Nadim related that there was lengthy correspondence between Ma’mun al-Rashid and the Roman King whom he had defeated in some battles. One of the conditions of the treaty between them was that the Roman King would allow the translation of all the books in his dominion and the translation work would be undertaken by those whom Ma’mun would appoint for this purpose. So it was, and the entire Roman stock of books was rendered into Arabic. It is golden example in history that a conqueror gave no greater importance to a conquest than the transfer of sciences and arts for the benefit of his people and his nation.

4. Maktabah al-Hakam, Andalusia

This library was very spacious and magnificent. It is said to have comprised 250,000 books. Its catalogues were very nicely prepared and gave every detail so much so that the catalogue of the collections of the poetical works alone comprised forty-four sections. The expert scribes were permanently employed there. Similarly, the services of the book binders were also available, with the result that Andalusia came to have a larger stock of books than ever before or ever since.

5. Maktabah Bani `Ammar, Tripoli

This library was a sign from the signs of Allah in terms of its spaciousness and grandiosity. The number of scribes alone was one hundred and eighty, who copied books within the stipulated time. They had shifts of duties around the clock, so that the copying business might continue uninterrupted. Banu `Ammar had such avidity for collecting new and rare books that he employed some officers and traders to tour different parts of their own country and also other countries to collect books for their library. Opinions differ regarding the number of books in this library although an accurate opinion is that it comprised a million books.

The Islamic world was full of private libraries, both in the East and West. There was hardly any learned man not possessing a library of his own comprising thousands of books:

1. Library of Fattah ibn Khaqan

Among such personal libraries that of Fattah ibn Khaqan (d. 247 AH) is very well known. It was a very spacious library. He had appointed the best learned man of his age, `Ali bin Yahya al-Munajjim, to look for and collect books. These books were not to be found elsewhere.

2. Library of Ibn Khashshab

The library of Ibn Khashshab (d. 567 CE) also comes under this category of libraries. He was an expert in nahw [syntax] and had good knowledge of tafsir [Quranic commentary], hadith logic and also philosophy. His love of books touched the limits of madness. This mad love for books compelled him to take to certain evil practices also in the collection of books. When he went to the bookseller and wanted to purchase any good book he would tear off certain pages of that book by stealth while pretending to examine it and then compelled the bookseller to sell the damaged book at a much cheaper price. Similarly, when he borrowed a book from some friend, he would usually pretend to have misplaced it and then keep it for himself.

3. Library of Jamaluddin al-Qifti

The library of Jamaluddin al-Qifti (d. 648 AH) was famous. He collected innumerable books. Due to his generosity, people from all sides would come to his place. Books were his first and last love, almost his craze, and he had dedicated his life to them. For this reason he did not marry because of the apprehension of being tangled in managing a house and looking after a family. At the time of his death he bequeathed his collection of books to Nasir. It was worth fifty-thousand dinars.

4. Library of Banu Jaradah

The library of the learned men of Banu Jaradah of Aleppo is also famous. One of these persons, Abu al-Hasan ibn Abi jaradan (d. 548 AH) wrote books to fill three libraries with his own hand – one for himself, one for his son Abu Barakat and a third for his grandson `Abdullah.

5. Library of Mawfiq ibn al-Matran

Mawfiq ibn al-Matran Damishqi (d. 587 CE) also had a famous library. He showed great fortitude and ambition in the procurement of books. At his death his collection of books on medical sciences and other disciplines comprised ten-thousand volumes. He had employed three scribes who were always busy copying books for his library. He paid them salaries and provided other necessities also.

If the hearts are filled with happiness when discussing the spread of libraries across the Islamic world in the glory days, then it should be filled with sadness and remorse when discussing the fate of these libraries as they were exposed to ruin and fire, the loss of which cannot be counted. Millions of books were destroyed and humanity is now deprived of them. It was the most expensive intellectual tradition of Islamic Civilization…

THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(from Chapter 11: Private and Public Libraries)

----------

*this marks the end of my sharing of this book. i apologize for the lengthy entries, but it sure is a good read.
*i am currently perusing through THE CHINESE DILEMMA (ye lin-sheng), which was given to me by my mom, while *lazily* trying to complete dr malik badri's book on 'tafakkur' (CONTEMPLATION: AN ISLAMIC PSYCHOSPIRITUAL STUDY)... care to join? how bout sharing your current reading material?

rabbana na`uudhu bika min `adhaabin fin-naari wa min `adhaabin fil-qabr
[Our Lord, we take refuge in You from torment in the fire and punishment in the grave]

Friday, May 13, 2005

bismillah,
Assalamu'alaikum warahmatullah,

InshaAllah, an event not to be missed!
Summary of the conference The purpose of this conference is to equip our brothers and sisters in Islam with the fndamentals and tools needed for their success as du'aah, those who spread the truth of the deen of Allah by refenerating and building upon that which binds every single one of us in our purpose and obligation For more info visit http://njdawah.org/

anybody? =)

private and public libraries

…Perhaps Arabic literature is the richest of the ancient literatures. Here, everyone appears to be a lover of books; books are being discussed and every one is interested in books. It appears as if the book was a lover whom one had not met for a long time. Ahmad ibn Isma`il says, “The book is a companion in conversation, and does not trouble you by broaching topics while you are busy, and does not put you to inconvenience by calling on you at the time of your respite [from work] or rest. When you want to see and talk to him you need no elaborate preparations to do so. The book is a friend that does not praise you to the skies, does not deceive you, and a companion that does not grieve you; it is an advisor that protects you from stumbling into error.”

…The libraries were primarily of two kinds – public and private. Public libraries were established by the Caliphs, nobles, scholars and the rich. Separate permanent buildings were built for them, and at times, these libraries were annexed to the large mosques and schools.

As for the independent and permanent library buildings, they comprised several rooms and spacious halls which connected these rooms. These books were kept on shelves fixed along the walls. Every room was set apart for books on a particular discipline. For example, there was a room for books of jurisprudence, a room for books on medicine, and a room for books on literature and so on.

In this building there were separate rooms for those wanting to read in the library [that is, reading rooms] and there were rooms for the scribes who used to copy books. In some library buildings, there was a separate room for music where the students could go to relax and refresh themselves – this is an aspect unique to Islamic Civilization. There were also rooms in which the learned men would gather for academic discussions and studies. All these rooms were furnished with the best and most comfortable furniture. There were separate rooms that served as dining halls for those coming to the library so that they could stay there for prolonged study. For the visitors, there were bedrooms where they could sleep, as reported in connection with the library of `Ali ibn Yahya ibn al-Munajjim who had a magnificent castle in the vicinity of Qafs, close to Baghdad in the village of Karkar. In the castle, he had a large great library known as “treasures of Wisdom,” where people would come from near and far and where they would stay to study the various disciplines. They would be provided with books and all the expenses were paid for by `Ali ibn Yahya himself…

In the public libraries a full-time staff was employed. The head librarian was known as the Khazin al-Maktabah. He would always be a renowned scholar of the time. There were also people who delivered the books to the readers. The translators would be transferring books from other languages into Arabic whilst the scribes would be writing books with their beautiful calligraphy. The binders would be binding books to save them from getting damaged or lost. Over and above these well-known posts, there were people employed for other miscellaneous jobs of a minor nature.

Every big and small library had a catalogue of books with which any book could be taken out easily. This catalogue was prepared according to the disciplines to which the books belonged. Every bookcase would have its own list with all the books present in it. In most libraries the general people could borrow books by depositing the requisite security for them. However, the scholars and others known for their excellence in learning and honor were exempt from this rule and no deposit was demanded of them…


...to be continued...

THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(from Chapter 11: Private and Public Libraries)

Thursday, May 12, 2005

hospitals and medical institutions (continued)

What follows is a description of the conditions of four major hospitals in four big cities of the Islamic world.

1. Azdi Hospital of Baghdad
Built by Azd al-Dawlah ibn Buwayh in 371 AH, the site for this hospital was selected by the then renowned physician, al-Razi [known as Rhazes of Europe]. He ordered that piece of fresh meat be placed at night at each proposed site. Upon examination in the morning, the place where the meat was found least affected by degenerative changes was considered most suitable for the hospital and construction was thus undertaken. A magnificent building was constructed at a tremendous cost and twenty-four of the most capable physicians were selected for the staff. A library, pharmacy, store and kitchen were provided for the hospital, of which were well equipped. In 449 AH, the Caliph Qa’im bin Amrillah renovated the hospital and equipped it with liquid medicines [infusions, decoctions, distilled extracts and syrups], herbs, roots and other medicines, which were of a rare nature. The patients were provided with sheets and blankets. Moreover, arrangements were made for perfumes, ice attendants, postmen, sentinels, watchmen and physicians to be available all the time. A big complex of washing facilities with a supply of hot and cold water was constructed and a garden and orchard were provided with flowers and fruits of all kinds. The patients who were too weak to move and did not have access to any other conveyance were regularly transferred from various places to this hospital, and the physicians attended to them morning and evening during their hours of duty.

2. Nuri Hospital of Damascus
Sultan Malik Nuruddin, the martyr (549 AH), constructed this hospital with the ransom paid to him by one of the Christian monarchs. At the time of its construction this was the most beautiful hospital in the Islamic world. It was constructed specifically for the poor and helpless, and only in extenuating circumstances were the rich allowed to seek its aid. Ibn Jubayr visited the hospital in 580 AH. He praised the kind treatment delivered by the physicians and their devotional care in the preparation and administration of medicine and food for their patients. There was a special department set aside for the management of psychological cases. Individuals who were found to be dangerous had to be restrained for the safety of others. However, they were properly fed and looked after in the matter of treatment. The historians narrate that in 831 AH, a non-Arab visitor went to Damascus. He was not only a great learned person but had fine tastes too. He happened to visit the hospital and was amazed to see the wholehearted commitment and devotion of the physicians, as well as the service of food, hygiene and other facilities provided for patients. What was still more surprising was that over and above the normal amenities, the patients had decoration and luxury articles supplied to them. In order to test the skills of the physicians of that hospital he pretended to be ill and managed to get hospitalized for diagnosis and treatment. For three days the Chief Medical Officer noted his pulse and appeared to be diagnosing his trouble. However, he discovered the very first day that the “patient” was fit and healthy and had come only to test their skills. Therefore, he prescribed for him a rich diet of good poultry meat, sweet dishes, refreshing and stimulating drinks and various kinds of fruits. For three days he was given this diet at the hospital. After that, the Chief Medical Officer left a note for him which read, “Hospitality here is for a limited period of three days.” That suggested to the non-Arab visitor that they had seen through his ruse and had entertained him only as a guest.

This hospital was functioning up until 1317 AH when it was converted to a hospital for foreigners. It is the same hospital which the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Syria now supervises. The Nuri Hospital was thus shut down and a local school was established.

3. The Major Mansuri Hospital
This hospital used to be the palace of some members of the nobility. Malik Mansur Sayfuddin Qala`un converted it into a hospital in 683 AH and endowed a particular estate for it with an annual income of one-thousand dirhams. A mosque, a Madrasah and a maktab for the orphans were also established along with it. According to historians, the hospital was established when, in 1675 AD during the time of Zahir Babyrus, the General set to oppose the advancing Roman armies, Amir Qala`un, was suddenly taken ill at Damascus. The physicians treated him there and the medicines were supplied from the Nuri Hospital. When he was completely cured he personally visited and inspected the Nuri Hospital. He was very much impressed by it and vowed that if Allah brought him to rule, he would build a hospital like it. When he became the Sultan, he selected and purchased the palace and he converted it into a hospital. This hospital from the point of view of organization and disposition was the only hospital of its kind. Admittance and treatment was open to all. The patients discharged and cured from this hospital were given new clothes to wear and those who died were buried at the hospital’s cost. There were separate physicians in charge of each branch of the medical sciences. There were attendants and nurses who washed the clothes of the patients, helped them to bathe, and cleaned and tidied the rooms and bedding. There were two attendees for every patient who did everything for their convenience and comfort. Every patient had a separate bed and bedding, and there were separate wards for patients of a certain type. There were fixed locations for discussions on medical themes and for lectures, where the principal used to teach the students. One of the unique aspects of this hospital was that treatment was not restricted to only inpatients, but was also provided for those who came as outpatients. They were supplied with medicines and nourishing food even under these conditions. Such was the extent of continuous medical treatment that one of the ophthalmologists at this hospital was reported to have said that more than four-thousand cases were treated daily. Those cured and discharged were offered clothes and cash to help them start some small business for their subsistence so that they would not be forced into difficult work immediately after coming out of hospital.

The documents relating to the endowments of these hospitals tells that a patient in the hospital was given his food in a vessel reserved for his exclusive use and no other patient could use it, and the food was always served covered. Another unique aspect of this hospital was that patients suffering form insomnia had a place set apart for them where they were entertained with charming music and interesting stories. Very weak patients were treated to amusing plays, jokes and rural dances. The muezzins of the neighborhood were ordered to make calls for the early morning Prayer two hours ahead of the scheduled time, and recite verses with proper intonation so that the patients may be cheered and their distress may be reduced, since lack of sleep and long nights were painful for them. When the French entered Egypt in 1798, their learned men saw these things with their own eyes, and stated them in their books in detail.

It is said that in Tripoli, there was a strange trust whose income was reserved exclusively for two people who would visit the hospitals daily. Sitting beside the patients, they would speak with each other in a whisper and in such a way that the patients would overhear them, getting the impression that their health was improving; the glow of health on their faces and the brightness of their eyes appearing to be evidence of that.

It is necessary to mention here the trust deed of this magnificent hospital in its entirety, as reported by the author of History of the Hospitals of the Islamic World (please refer to the comments section).

4. The Moroccan Hospital
Sultan Mansur Abu Yusuf, a well-known ruler of the Muwahiddin Dynasty of Morocco, built this facility. Spacious land was selected in one of the most temperate places of the country and the architects and builders were ordered to make it the most beautifully designed building possible. All sorts of fruit trees and plants were grown on the premises. Canals of running water passed by every room of the hospital. Four special reservoirs were built, one of them of pure white marble. Fine beddings were provided for the hospital beds, made out of wool, linen, silk and leather. A pharmacy was built in the hospital in which different kids of syrups, oils, collyria and other medicines were prepared. Patients were provided with different clothes for the day and night and summer and winter. Once completely cured, the poor patient would be given sufficient funds to help him start a business and earn a livelihood. A patient who was rich also received his share. This hospital was not dedicated to the poor and the indidgent only, for the affluent also benefited from its existence. In whichever section of Morocco a stranger was found ill, he was brought to the hospital and admitted as an inpatient. He was either cured and discharged or died there. The Sultan would go to the hospital every Friday and learn firsthand about the health of the patients, the work of the physicians and their dealings with the patients.

These are four examples out of hundreds of the hospitals that were functioning at that time in the Islamic world from the East to the West. They existed at a time when Europe was wandering under layers of darkness and was unaware of these hospitals and of their level of cleanliness and human concern. A well-known German Orientalist Dr. Marx Mayerhoff says about the European hospitals of the time, in light of the conditions in those of the Islamic Civilization, “The Arab hospitals and the health systems existing in the Islamic countries of the past is giving us a harsh and bitter lesson. We cannot fully appreciate it unless we compare this system with that of the European hospitals of that period.”

…In conclusion, we can say that the Islamic Civilization established the highest standard in the field of the management of hospitals about nine hundred years prior to Western Civilization. The hospitals of the Islamic Civilization were established under such exalted human sentiments and principles of mercy and justice to humanity, which have no parallel in history. Furthermore, these sentiments and principles have not yet been fully witnessed to this day in the Western countries…


THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(from Chapter 10: Hospitals and Medical Institutions)

Wednesday, May 11, 2005

hospitals and medical institutions

Islamic Civilization paid due attention to the development and care of the physique so that along with a resplendent soul, man may attain the highest position in development. In this connection, the words of the founder of Islamic Civilization, Prophet Muhammad SAW, are worthy of attention, “Assuredly the body too has a claim over you” (Bukhari and Muslim). `Ali ibn `Abbas has defined medicine as “the science which investigates the preservation of health and returning health to the ill.”

…Muslims established their first ever hospital during the period of Walid ibn `Abd al-Malik which was meant exclusively for leprosy patients. The physicians appointed to this hospital were granted large properties and salaries. Those undergoing treatment had orders to stay at the hospitals permanently and were granted stipends, just as they had been granted to the blind. Thereafter a whole series of hospitals and asylums for the infirm were built.

Hospitals were of two kinds – mobile dispensaries and permanent buildings. One such mobile dispensary is traceable to the period of the Prophet SAW and was established during the Battle of the Trench. In this battle, a separate tent was erected for the wounded. When Sa`d ibn Mu`adh was wounded and one of the blood vessels of his arm was injured, the Prophet SAW ordered that he should be kept in the tent for the wounded so that he might personally look after him. This was the first mobile military dispensary in Islam. Later on, the Caliphs and the rulers developed and extended them to the extent that all the requirements of patients ranging from medical care, diet, medicines, clothes, physicians and pharmacists were provided. These mobile hospitals moved from village to village where there were no permanent hospitals…

During the reign of Sultan Muhammad Saljuqi, the mobile hospital had become so large that forty camels carried its equipment. As for the permanent hospitals, they were in such large numbers that every big and small town benefited from them. Even the smallest town boasted of more than one hospital. For example, Cordoba alone had fifty major hospitals.

The nature of these hospitals had changed too. Some of them were reserved for the army personnel and had their own special physicians. These physicians were in addition to the special physicians attending to the Caliphs, the military commanders and the nobles. There were separate hospitals for the prisoners. The physician examined the prisoners everyday and they were provided with the necessary facilities of treatment…

Some hospitals were of a general nature, open to all at all hours of the day and night. They were of two types – male-only hospitals and female-only hospitals. Each type of hospital had several departments dealing with different disease: systemic disease, ophthalmology, surgery, orthopedics and psychology. The department of systemic diseases was further divided into sub-sections dealing with fevers and digestive troubles.

Every department had an officer-in-charge and a presiding officer, as well as a specialist of its own. There was also a superintendent, supervising the work and management of the entire institution. There were fixed working hours for the physicians during which they attended to the patients coming to their departments.

Every hospital had its own junior staff of pharmacists and nurses. Their salaries were fixed and were reasonably lucrative. Every hospital had a pharmacy known as the “Store of Medications,” which comprised many kinds of fluid medicines, fine electuaries and high quality medicinally preserved fruit. Moreover, there were some very refined preparations and juices, essences and distilled decoctions, available only at the hospitals and nowhere else. They also had fine surgical instruments, glass containers and other vessels which previously were to be found only in the palaces of the kings…

The portals of these hospitals were open to everybody and no fees of any kind were charged. No distinction was made between the poor and the rich, related and the stranger, local and foreign, common man and distinguished person. In the outpatient department, the patients were carefully examined and in the case of those in need of casual attention they were given the prescribed medicines to be taken at home. However, those who had serious conditions requiring regular attention and supervision were registered as inpatients. The patient would be sent to the changing room and would be provided with a clean hospital uniform, while the patient’s own clothes were kept in the hospital store. The patient would then be taken to the hospital ward where a bed was ready for him or her with clean sheets. The course of the treatment prescribed by the doctor would immediately start. The patient would be given a nourishing diet to aid his recovery and improve his or her health. The quality of diet was also fixed and the patient would receive mutton, beef, meat of poultry and other birds. The patient who was cured of his malady but remained weak would be transferred to the ward for convalescents until he or she was fully cured. Before discharge, the patient was given a new dress and enough monetary aid to establish a means of livelihood. The hospital rooms and wards were neat and tidy, with a regular supply of water and furnished with clean carpets. Every hospital had a sanitary inspector, accountants and other executive staff. The Caliph in office would visit these hospitals, meet the patients and take interest in their problems…


...to be continued...

THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(from Chapter 10: Hospitals and Medical Institutions)

Tuesday, May 10, 2005

bismillah...


What Allah said to the Rose
And caused it to laugh in full blown beauty,
He said to my heart
And made it a hundred times more beautiful.
* by... Jalauddin Rumi is perhaps the most widely known Muslim poet in the world. Even after the passage of almost a thousand years his poems and writings are avidly read by people all over the world. In fact, today in the West, he is the most widely read poet among both Muslims and non-Muslims.
ps:/ if some of us still remember, this beautiful poem was discussed in the tuesday halqa last few years =)

schools and educational institutions

In the Islamic Civilization, the mosque was the centre which developed the school. At that time, the mosque was not only a place of worship; its extensive open space served as a school where young children learned how to read and write and learned the Quran, Shari`ah, Grammar, and branches of various other disciplines. Next to the mosques kuttab were established that specifically taught reading, writing, Arabic and Mathematics. These kuttab resembled the present day primary schools; and there were so many that Ibn Hawqal calculated that there were three hundred kuttab in one of the towns of Sicily. They were so spacious that at any one time hundreds and thousands of students could be taught. Abu al-Qasim al-Balkhi writes about his own kuttab in which three thousand students would learn, “Its compound was so wide that a donkey had to be used [to go from one part to the other] for the supervision of the students.”

…The education in the schools were of two types: an internal section for the poor who could not financially afford to live on the wealth of their parents and an external section for those who wanted to return tot heir families in the evening. The internal [boarding] section was also free and provided food and a bed for the student. Every school had a mosque, classrooms, residential quarters for the students, library, kitchen and toilet facilities. Some scholars also had playgrounds outside. Even today there are examples of these types of schools which were previously to be found throughout the entire Islamic world. In Damascus, there is still al-Madrasah al-Nuriyyah founded by the great hero Nuruddin al-Shahid. It stands in the “Market of the Weavers” and is still operating and providing us with the mechanics of the schools established during Islamic Civilization. Ibn Jubayr, the traveler, visited it in the beginning of the seventh century after hijrah. He was also impressed with that that he wrote, “From among the best schools in the world is the school of Nuruddin, may Allah have mercy on him. It is one of the most elegant palaces ever established. For its water supply, a canal has been constructed up to the school building, in the centre of which stands a fountain, dividing the falling water into two small streams which further on join to fill a big reservoir situated in the centre of this palace. The beauty of the scene is captivating.”


…The mosque of al-Azhar is also a living specimen of a school within a mosque, wherein students gather to pursue their studies under the guidance of a teacher in various different sections. Around the mosque are rooms known as warraq where these students reside and live in their own groups. For example, there were separate warraq for the Syrian, Turkish, Sudanese and Iraqi students. Even today, the students of al-Azhar University get monthly stipends along with their free education from the income of the properties endowed for al-Azhar.

The principals of these schools used to come from among the best and most famous of scholars. The biographies of the famous scholars mention the schools that they taught in. Imam al-Nawawi, Ibn al-Salah, Abu Shamma, Taqiyuddin Subki and Imaduddin ibn Kathir taught at the “House of Hadith” in Damascus. Ghazali, Shirazli, Imam al-Haramayn, `Allama Shasi, khatib al-Tabrizi, Qazwini and Fayruzabadi and others taught at the Madrasah Nizamiyyah in Baghdad. In the early period, these teachers never accepted any remuneration for their services. However, at the height of Islamic Civilization, great seats of learning came into existence, large endowments were made for them and resulted in monthly salaries which were allocated in the budgets for the teachers…

There were many schools meant for various purposes. Some of them imparted knowledge of the Quran only, such as its commentary, recital and commitment to memory. There were others that taught hadith and relevant disciplines. There were many others exclusively imparting knowledge of Fiqh. Again, there was a separate Madrasah for every school of Fiqh. Similiarly, there were separate Madrasas for the education of medicine and there were also schools only for the orphans.

Na`imi, who was the most outstanding among the scholars of the tenth century, has given a complete list of the schools of Damascus and their endowments in his book al-Daramin fi’l-Tarikh al-Madaris. It tells us that there were seven Madrasas meant exclusively for the education of the Quran and relevant disciplines, sixteen for the teaching of hadith, three for the Quran and hadith combined, sixty-three Madrasas for Shafi`I Fiqh, fifty-two for Hanafi Fiqh, four for the Maliki school of Fiqh and eleven for Hanbali Fiqh. There were entirely separate schools for the education of medical sciences. There were also more houses of retreat, inns and the great congregation mosques than schools. It must be remembered that in al these places there was pursuit of teaching and learning in full swing…

Ibn Kathir, in his book al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, writes under the events of 631 AH, “This year the building of Madrasah Mustansariyyah was completed. No such Madrasah was ever built before that. This was dedicated to all the four schools of Fiqh. Sixty-two jurists of every school of Fiqh worked at this Madrasah. Four of them were experts, one a teacher of every school, one Shaykh of hadith, two reciters well versed in the recital of the Quran with proper intonation, ten careful listeners who guarded against the reciter making any lapses and correcting him on the spot, one a Shaykh of Medicine and ten Muslim physicians who ran the clinics. There was also a maktab of orphans. For every student there was a fixed quantity of bread, meat and sweets and a particular amount of money for other expenses which was far in excess of their needs.”

He goes on further to say, “For the school, a library was endowed, which was unparalleled in our knowledge. There were a large number of books and some of the best specimens of the art of calligraphy. The best books of every discipline were collected here.”


THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(from Chapter 9: Schools and Educational Institutions)

Monday, May 09, 2005

religious tolerance


The principles of religious tolerance in Islamic Civilization are as follows: All revealed religions have spring from the same fountain. The Quran says, The same religion He has established for you is as that which He enjoined on Nuh – and what We now reveal to you – and enjoined on Ibrahim, Musa, `Isa, saying, “Establish the religion and do not become divided therein” (Quran, 42:13)

The prophets are a brotherhood and there is no superiority of one over the other from the viewpoint of the risala. Thus it is binding on Muslims to believe in all the Prophets of Allah. The Quran says, Say, “We believe in Allah and in that which He has revealed to us and to Ibrahim, Isma`il, Ishaq, Ya`qub, al-`Asbat and that which was revealed to Musa, `Isa and that which was revealed to the prophets from their Lord, We make no difference between one and another and we bow in submission to Him” (Quran, 2:136).

There is no compulsion in religion. Rather, it has been left to the inclination and pleasure of people, Let there be no compulsion religion (Quran, 2:256). Will you then compel mankind, against their will, to believe? (Quran, 10:33).

The places of worship of all divine religions are respectable places and protecting them is just as essential as protecting the mosques of Muslims, For had it not been for Alalh’s checking some men by means of others, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, wherein the name of Allah is often mentioned, would have been destroyed (Quran, 22:40).

The Messenger of Allah had Jewish and Christian neighbors and he would always treat them kindly and benevolently, sending gifts to them and accepting gifts from them… When the Abyssinian Christians came to Madinah, the Messenger of Allah made arrangements for them to stay in the mosque, and took upon himself the responsibilities of hospitality and service. He also said, “These people respected and treated our Companions with honor and thus I wish to host them myself.”

…Once a woman from Egypt lodged a complaint with `Umar that `Amr ibn al-`As had annexed her house for the extension of the mosque against her will. `Umar asked `Amr ibn al-`As for an explanation. He explained that the number of the believers coming to the mosque for prayer far exceeded the capacity of the mosque. The house of the complainant was adjacent to the mosque and she was offered the price of her property and far in excess of its real worth, but she declined the offer. Therefore, in view of public interest, it was demolished to form part of the mosque, and the costs were deposited in the Bayt al-Maal, so that she might take it whenever she pleased. Apparently the explanation offered by `Amr ibn al-`As was reasonable, and our present day law also permits it. However, to `Umar it was not acceptable and he ordered the demolition of the portion of the mosque built on the site of the woman’s house and ordered the re-construction of her house as it had been before…

Under Islamic rule, the Christians had full freedom to perform their religious ceremonies, and their religious leaders had full authority over their co-religionists and the government never interfered in their personal affairs. The Christians themselves realized that there was such perfect freedom under the Islamic State. In this connection the name of Sultan Muhammad, the conqueror of Constantinople, shall ever remain fresh in the history of religious tolerance. When he conquered Constantinople, it was exclusively populated by Christians and was the capital of the patriarch for the Eastern Catholic Christians. The Sultan granted amnesty to the entire Christian population and guaranteed safety of their lives, properties, their creed, their churches and their crosses. They were exempted from military service and their leaders were authorized to judge and decide all those cases that came to them from their co-religionists. The Islamic government never interfered with regards to this legislation. The Christians of Constantinople themselves felt that there was a world of difference between the attitude and behavior of Sultan Muhammad and the Byzantine rulers of the past. The Byzantine rulers interfered in the religious differences of people and meted out preferential treatment to the followers of their own church in comparison to those of the other churches. So the Christians liked the new system of government very much and were pleased with the religious tolerance which had no parallel in their own governments. The Roman patriarch had been allowed so much authority that his position made it a case of a state within the state. For five hundred years they lived in this free atmosphere, and their freedom was so well protected that they needed nor army, nor had they to pay any taxes for such security. However, it was disgraceful how the Christians took undue advantage of the special privileges allowed to them due to religious tolerance. At the close of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, they resorted to perfidious and treacherous moves to put an end to the local authority and dominion of these towns and cities where they had lived for centuries…

Another proof of the religious tolerance of the Islamic Sate is that they selected the most capable people and entrusted important posts to them irrespective of their beliefs. Thus during the period of the Umayyids and `Abbasids, Christian physicians were appointed to highly responsible posts, and they were held in high esteem by the Caliph themselves. In Baghdad and Damascus the Christian physicians were in charge of many of the medical schools for a long time. Ibn Athal, a Christian doctor, was the personal physician of Mu`awiyah, and another Christian by the name of Sergeon was his scribe. Marwan had appointed Athanaseus with another Christian, Isaac, to hold important posts in Egypt, and later they were promoted to the high post of the Treasury office. Athanaseus was a man of high status who was also extremely rich. He had four thousand slaves and he owned several villages and gardens. He had a church built in al-Raha, out of the rent of the four hundred shops that he owned. His reputation as a learned person attained such a position that `Abd al-Malik, the Umayyid Caliph entrust to his care the education and training of his younger brother, `Abd al-`Aziz, who later became the governor of Egypt. His son was the renowned Caliph `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz…

In short, the standard of religious tolerance in Islamic Civilization attained a height that has no parallel in history. Even the truth-loving historians of the West are in accord with this view and bear witness to it. The well-known American writer, Draper, says, “During the period of the Caliphs, the learned men of the Christians and the Jews were not only held in great esteem but were appointed to posts of great responsibility and were promoted to the high ranking jobs in the government. Harun al-Rashid appointed John, son of Masuyah as the Director of Public Instruction and all the schools and colleges were placed under his charge. Harun never took into account the country of origin or the faith that one belonged to. In fact, he did not take anything into consideration except one’s excellence in the field of learning.”

The well-known contemporary historian, Wells writes, “The Islamic teachings have left great traditions for equitable and gentle dealings and behavior and inspire people with nobility and tolerance. These are human teachings of the highest order and at the same time these teachings are practical. These teachings brought into existence a society in which hard-heartedness and collective oppression and injustice were at the lowest level and when compared with other societies preceding it.” He continues, “Islam is replete with gentles, tolerance and fraternity.”

Liefy Brutistal writes in his book, Muslim Spain of the Tenth Century: “So often the scribe writing out the terms of a treaty was a Jew or a Christian, just as many Jews and Christians were occupying important posts of the State. They were vested with authority in the administrative departments, even in matters of war and peace. Furthermore, there were Jews who acted as the ambassadors of the Caliph in the European countries.”

Reno writes in his book, The History of Saracen Wars in France, Switzerland, Italy and Mediterranean Island: “In Andalusian cities the Muslim meted out the best treatment to the Christians. Likewise, the Jews and the Christians had full regard for the feelings of Muslims. For example, they circumcised their offspring and abstained from eating pork.”

Arnold, discussing the religious thought of the Christian religious sects writes, “The principles of Islamic religious tolerance do not allow such things which culminate in oppression and tyranny. Therefore, the behavior of Muslims remains quite different from that of the followers of other religions. Rather, Muslims did not approve of the injustices of the various sects of other religions which they had meted out to one another due to religious prejudices. This we can vouch for since we have before us the evidence of history which shows that where the various Christian sects living as subjects of the Islamic State were concerned, Muslims never faltered in the maintenance of the balance of justice between them. A manifest example of it is that after the conquest of Egypt, the Jacobite sect of the Christians took possession of their properties and churches by force to avenge themselves of the tyranny of the Byzantine Christians of the past. However, the Islamic State meted out full justice to them, and all the properties and churches of the conservative Christians to which they could prove their just claims were duly restored to them.”

…Gustav Le Bon writes, “History is not acquainted with any nation of conquerors, more kind-hearted and tolerant than the Arabs. Nor can history present any faith, so clear, simple, and harmless as that of the Arabs.” This statement has done full justice to the truth.

THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(Chapter 5: Religious Tolerance)

Friday, May 06, 2005

racial equality

…When Muslims conquered Egypt and advanced to the Fort of Bablion, Muqauqis the ruler of Egypt sent a delegation to speak to Muslims to find out what they wanted. He also expressed a desire to receive a delegation of Muslims. Therefore `Amr ibn al-`As sent a delegation comprising ten people. This delegation was led by `Ubada ibn Samit, and he alone was authorized to talk to Muqauqis. `Ubada was tall and very black, and when this delegation approached Muqauqis to speak to him, he was struck by his appearance alone, and he said to the members of the delegation, “Keep this black person away from me, and bring forward somebody else to speak to me.” The members of the delegation unanimously said to him, “He is superior to us in intellect, knowledge, opinion, insight and in every other way. He is our leader. We all turn to him for his opinion and advice. Moreover, our governor has given him some particular instructions, and has ordered us not to go against him in any manner whatsoever.” At this, muqauqis said to the delegation, “How could you agree to make him your leader and superior, whereas he ought to have been your subordinate?’” To this the delegation replied, “No, despite the fact you see him as black, he is the best among us in knowledge, in nobility, in intellect and opinion, and we do not look down upon the black man.” Muqauqis said to `Ubada, “Come forward, O black [man] and speak to me gently for I fear your color, and if you were to talk to me in a harsh tone, my distress shall be all the greater.” `Ubada, noticing Muqauqis’ fear of black people, said, “We have in our army a thousand people darker than me.” …

`Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan used to order someone to declare, at the start of season of Hajj, that none should be allowed to give legal opinions except `Ata ibn Abi Ribaah – the leader, scholar and jurist of Makkah. Does anyone know what `Ata looked like? He was black, one-eyed, flat-nosed, lame and curly haired. When he was sitting in front of his students it appeared as if a black bird was sitting in a field of cotton. However, it was this person whom the Islamic Civilization made a leader and a person to whom people turned for legal opinions. He was a school of thought in his own right and thousands of students (of all races and hues) graduated from his school. His students upheld him in honor, love and respect.

In Islamic Civilization there have been several scholars of African origin and this did not prevent them from making headway in the field of knowledge and literature. It did not prevent them from becoming men of letters associating with Caliphs as poets, or jurists writing books that were considered to be references in Islamic Law. Examples are `Uthman ibn `Ali al-Zayla`i, who wrote a commentary on Kanz al-Daqaa`iq, a book of Hanafi jurisprudence, and al-Hafiz Jamaluddin Abi Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Yusuf al-Zayla`i (d.762) who wrote Nasab al-Rayah. Both of them were African and, specifically, from Zayla in Abyssinia. Kafur al-Akhshidi is also a well-known person. He was a dark-skinned freed slave who ruled Egypt in the fourth Islamic century and whose name has been immortalized by the famous poet Mutanabbi through his eulogy…

The famous American economist Victor Barlow once said, “The venom of racial discrimination has spread the length and breadth of the country, and has seeped into American life to such an extent that the common people have now become used to the fact that no opportunity should be lose in debasing and humiliating the African-Americans and other minorities.” …

… A black girl named Fartuna wrote a letter to the Caliph `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz that the boundary wall of her house was very low and the poachers scaled the wall and stole her hens. `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz wrote back to her saying that the governor of Egypt had been ordered to have the wall of her house raised and to undertake other necessary repairs to the house also. He wrote to the governor of Egypt Ayyub ibn Sharhabil, “Fartuna the freed slave girl has written to me complaining that the boundary wall of her house is so low that thieves enter at night and steal her hens. She wants it to be raised and reinforced. When you receive this letter go to her house and in your own presence have the wall raised and properly strengthened.” When Ayyub ibn Sharhabil received the letter he went out in search of Fartuna and found her to be a poor black woman. He informed her of what the Amir al-Mu’miniin had written and he himself raised and strengthened the wall.


THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(Chapter 4: Racial Equality)

Thursday, May 05, 2005

philanthropy

“O mankind! We created you from a single [pair] of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes so that you may know each other. Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is [one who is] the most God-fearing of you” (Quran, 49:13)


When it came to the period of the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, he came forward as a ruler whose heart was full of sympathy for mankind. Notwithstanding his position as the head of the Islamic State, he came to the girls of the locality whose fathers had become martyrs in religious wars. He milked their goats for them and assured them that his new responsibilities would not stand between him and his previous routine [of such benevolent acts].

`Umar ibn al-Khattab was an exemplary glorious Caliph – sympathetic to the weak, firm on truth and a Caliph who judged all as equal. He deprived himself to give to others, stayed hungry so others were fed and went door to door asking people about their living conditions.

Once he saw an old man begging in the market place. He asked, “Who are you, old man?’ He replied, “I am an old man asking for jizyah and some money to live with.” He was from among the Jews living in Madinah. `Umar said to him, “O old man! We have not done justice to you. In your youth we took jizyah from you and have left you to look after yourself in your old age.” Holding him by the hand, he led him to his own house and prepared food for him. He then issued orders to the treasure of the Bayt al-Maal so that the old man and all others like him would regularly be given an allowance which should suffice for them and their dependents.

`Umar ibn al-Khattab was walking through a street in Madinah, when he saw a very lean young girl moving along shakily. He said, “What is this child’s sad plight? Does anyone know her?’ His son `Abdullah said to him, “Do you not recognize her, O Amir al-Mu`miniin?” He replied, “No.” `Abdullah said, “She is one of your daughters!” `Umar asked, “And which one of my daughters is she?” `Abdullah said, “She is the daughter of `Abdullah the son of `Umar [granddaughter].” `Umar said, “Why then is she in such a condition?” His son said to him, “Whatever you have, you have not given any to us.” `Umar said in reply to his complaint, “By Allah! I have nothing for you more than I can give out to the believers in general, whether it meets your needs or not. The Book of Allah stands to decide the just amongst us.”

Once a caravan came to Madinah with many women and children. `Umar ibn al-Khattab said to `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, ‘Can you stand guard on them tonight?’ So `Umar and `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf kept awake that night together and prayed tahajjud. `Umar, on hearing a baby’s cry, approached the mother and said to her, “Fear Allah and look after your child carefully.” Saying this, he returned to his position. Once again, he heard the child crying, and going over to her mother once again gave her the same advice. During the last part of the night the child cried once again. `Umar came to the mother and said, “Woe to you! You appear not to be a good mother. How is it that your child could not sleep peacefully during the night.” The woman, not knowing that she was speaking to the Amir al-Mu`miniin, said in reply, “O servant of Allah, you have pestered me several times during the night. I want to wean him forcefully [before time], but the child doesn’t comply.” `Umar asked her, “Why?” She said in reply, “Because `Umar grants allowances only for such children that have been weaned.” `Umar asked, “How old is he?” She replied that he was only a few months old. Then `Umar asked the woman not to be hasty in weaning her child. He then led the morning prayer in such a state that his weeping made the recital of the Quran inaudible. At the end of the prayer he said, “`Umar is ruined. How many Muslim children has he killed!” He then ordered someone to declare to the mothers not to hasten in weaning their children, as allowances would be given to every newborn child...


Islamic Civilization has more glorious incidents to present. `Umar’s servant, Aslam, relates, “I went out with `Umar one night into the open area outside Madinah. We were out on a fact-finding mission to distant hamlets on the outskirts of Madinah. From a distance we observed a glow far off. `Umar said, ‘I believe the darkness of the night and the cold have compelled some horsemen to sojourn there. Let us go and see.’ We proceed at a brisk pace and reached that spot. We saw a woman sitting there with some children around her crying. `Umar greeted her and asked, ‘What is wrong?’ The woman said in reply, ‘They are hungry.’ Then `Umar asked her, ‘What is in the fire?’ The woman said, ‘Only water to console the children so that they may remain quiet and go to sleep.’ What the woman wanted to convey was that `Umar was not fair and just to them. `Umar said to her, ‘My good woman! What does `Umar know about your state of affairs?’ To which she replied, ‘Why then should he hold the high office of Caliph when he is unaware of our condition?’ `Umar then said to me, ‘Let us go now.’ We left from there in a rush and reached the House of Flour and `Umar took a bag of flour and a container of oil and asked me to load the bag on his back. I offered my services but he angrily brushed aside my offer saying, ‘Can you relieve me of my burden on the Day of Reckoning too?’ So I loaded the bag on his back, and then we hastened towards our destination at a fast enough pace. Soon he placed the bag and, taking out some flour from it, gave it to the woman and asked her to knead it while he himself offered to the fan fire to a flame. So he started blowing the fire below the pot. His beard was thick and I saw smoke percolating through his beard. He went on blowing at it until the food was ready, and he asked the woman to bring some vessel. When she brought a platter he poured out the contents of the pot into it and asked the woman to feed the children while he himself fanned to cool it. We sat there until all of them had eaten to their fill. What was left of the flour and oil was handed over to her and then `Umar got up and I followed suit. The woman said, ‘Allah bless you. You are more deserving of that high office than the Amir al-Mu`miniin. `Umar said to her, ‘When tomorrow you come to see the Amir al-Mu`miniin, you will find me there, Allah willing.’ After that `Umar left and then retraced his steps and hid himself close to where they were staying. I said to him that it was not proper on his part to observe them from the place of his concealment. He kept quiet. We saw that the children were paying merrily and then they went to sleep. `Umar thanked Allah and got up and, turning to me, said, ‘Aslam! Hunger was growing in their stomachs, keeping them awake and making them cry. I would not have been at ease until I had seen what you have seen.’”

One of the unique incidents relating to sympathy and equality in the history of mankind is another story involving `Umar. It was usual for him to go out during the nights to see the conditions with which people lived. One night he found himself in one of the many valleys of Madinah. All of a sudden, he heard somebody crying in a nearby tent, at whose door was standing a man. `Umar greeted him in the proper manner and asked him who he was. He said that he was a Bedouin who had come to Madinah to ask the Amir al-Mu`miniin for help. Then `Umar asked him about the crying and wailing inside the tent, a question the Bedouin tried to evade, saying that since it did not concern him, he should not interest himself in it and be on his way. Little did he know he was talking to the Amir al-Mu`miniin. However, on the insistence of `Umar, he told him that his wife was in labor and had no one to help her with the delivery. `Umar went back home and asked his wife, Umm Kulthum bint `Ali and said, “Shall I facilitate a reward for you from Allah?” She asked, “What is it?” He informed her of the situation and told her to take clothes for the newborn baby and whatever the woman would require including food. `Umar took all those things from her and started to walk with Umm Kulthum following him. They reached the house and `Umar said to his wife, “Go to the woman.” He sat down with the man, lit the fire and began to cook whatever they had brought. All this time, the man did not know with whom he was sitting. Meanwhile, the woman in the tent gave birth and Umm Kulthum called out from the house, “O Amir al-Mu`miniin, give good news of a baby boy to your friend.” When the Bedouin heard her, he was awe-struck and began moving away from `Umar. However, `Umar reassured him and said, “Stay where you are.” He then carried the cooking pot and asked his wife to feed the woman. When she had eaten, he offered food to the man saying, “Eat it, you have stayed up the whole night.” Umm Kulthum then came out and `Umar said to the man, “Come to me tomorrow and I shall see it that your needs are provided for.” When he came to him the next morning, `Umar granted an allowance for his new born baby and was himself given help...

`Umar is not an isolated example presented as a perfect and affectionate person of Islamic Civilization. There are many others. The lives of Abu Bakr, `Uthman and `Ali, may Allah be pleased with them all, were also moulded in the mould of perfect humanity, regarding mercy and affection. Also the lives of `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz, Salahuddin al-Ayyubi and many other great personalities, the scholars, the jurists, the philosophers and the leaders also present countless immortal examples as evidence in favor of the glorious Islamic Civlization from every aspect.


THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
Dr Mustafa Siba`i
(Chapter 3: Philanthropy)

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Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhiallaho anho): The Prophet (sallallaahu'alaihi wasallam) said, "There was a merchant who used to lend the people, and whenever his debtor was in straitened circumstances, he would say to his employees, 'Forgive him so that Allah may forgive us.' So, Allah forgave him."

[Bukhari Vol. 3 : No. 292]
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/034.sbt.html#003.034.292

Sunday, May 01, 2005

bismillah, walhamdulillah, wassolatu wassalamu 'ala rasulillah, wa'ala aalihi wasahbihi ajma'een.

hadith #2::there is no salaah without wudhu'
from (the authority of) abu hurairah (radhiAllahu 'anhu), he said: Rasulullah (sallAllahu 'alaihi wasallam) said:
Allah does not (and should not) accept the salaah of any of you that is in hadath (major/besar & minor/kecil), until you enter into/perform wudhu'.

**hadath - that which exited from the two channels (qubl & dubr) that nullifies one's wudhu.
i- wudhu' is an external condition from salaah.
ii- our salaah is invalid without wudhu' i.e. need to perform it again.
iii- our salaah will not be accepted until we cleanse ourselves from the two types of hadath: major e.g. state of janabah, minor e.g. urination.
iv- ALlah wants us to enter into salah beautifully because indeed, it is our personal retreats i.e. time kita bermunajat, with Him.

hadith #3:: don't be lax with your heels
from 'abdullah ibn abbas and abu hurairah and 'aishah (radhiAllahu 'anhum), they said: Rasulullah (SAW) said:
Woe unto the heels from the fire of hell!

**the heels= the owner of the heels
i-A powerful warning for each of us --> don't be lax in wudhu'. for every part that has to be washed in wudhu', water needs to reach them. the parts where water is deprived from them will be touched by an-naar.
ii-remember: Rasulullah (SAW) also taught us that the water that we used to perform wudhu washes away our sins; which means that, the part that is not touched by wudhu' still carries the dzunoob (sins) with it. that may very well be the very reason that leads us to an-naar (na'udhubillah).

Allahu'alam. Marilah kita prektis apa kita belajar.

..from::taysir al 'allam:sharh umdaat al ahkam. all ahadith are related by bukhari & muslim..